By: Mohamed Abdilahi Bihi
The OAU used specific instruments like coordination committee for the liberation of Africa; liberation movements; the frontline states; and the African group at the UN to accelerate the process of decolonization. One of the purposes of the OAU charter mentioned in an article two is” to eradicate all forms of colonialism in Africa”.
In the pursuance to this, the assembly of heads of state and government adopted a resolution, in 1963, on decolonization which among other things established a coordination committee for the liberation of Africa. At first, committee consisted of Algeria, Ethiopia, Guinea, Congo, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda and Egypt. Later in, the membership stood are a twenty-one century.
The committee was head quartered in Dar-es-salaam. It became responsible for harmonizing of assistance from African state to the liberation movement and also was charged with managing of the special fund which was set up for the purpose.
The committee has been one of the most active institutions in OAU. Since its establishment in 1963, it has coordinated assistance to liberation movements and encouraged them to form a united front and wage relentless struggle in aspects of armed, diplomatic and political which finally as a result led to many African countries to gain their independence. The committee was disbanded after apartheid was dismantled in south Africa, there by accomplishing its mission- the total liberation of Africa from colonial rule.
The resolution on decolonization adopted by the summit conference in May 1963 invited all nationalist liberation movements to coordinate their efforts by establishing common action fronts where ever necessary so as to strengthen the effectiveness of their struggle. In line with this, the African liberation movements recognized by the OAU have in large measures, coordinated their efforts and have successfully waged the freedom struggle which led to independence from colonial rules of their respective countries.
To achieve their objectives, the liberation movements have always been beneficiaries of the assistance rendered to them by the African states and from outside in most cases challenged to them through the coordination committee for the liberation of Africa.
To qualify for such assistances, a liberation movement must have been recognized by the OAU. To be recognized a liberation fronts must satisfy criteria and conditions laid down by the organization:’ recognition is important to liberation movements, not only for the access this gives to OAU fund and platforms, but because recognition has been taken by some non-African governments as a criterion of liberal humanitarian aid’.
Despite the fact that the OAU and its liberation committee had exerted tremendous pressure on liberation movements to form a common front, some movements continued to be affected by a split with in their ranks which gave rise to conflicts and civil war even after they had obtained independence, ideology also play a part in the split within the movements. In conclusion, it can safely be said that the liberation movements have been mandated by the OAU to act on behalf of all the member states.
In the African experience, there are number of ways by which one can get an independence from colonial rule but not from their own country as many Somali regions are thinking about: one by peaceful means, which is through negations; the other through armed struggle and third through combination of both.
The front line states rendered their assistance to the liberation movement in every way possible. At that time, these countries have been directly involved in independence negotiations for Namibia. Their united stand of the liberation movements concerned carried out weight.
The political position of such state has earned them the enmity of the colonialist and racist states.
So much so, they have been targets of constant attack by enemy forces and have sustained massive loses of life and property. However, in spite of this hardship they have continued to make sacrifices so that their brethren shall be free from alien rule.
At that time frontline states were: united republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Angola, Zimbabwe and Namibia.
Africa did not forget the loses in life and property this fellow countries suffered in the cause of independence which they are milking at the moment.
Also to facilitate these African countries had a great role in a determination of issues internationally.
As a regard the African group at the United Nations, played a significant role since African countries compromised one third of the membership of United Nations.
Hence, after a lot of struggle the OAU tried restlessness to pursue to the other African countries and the international community which were favoring for the decolonization of Africa to double the effort which finally led to complete liberation of all African nations.
Since that time, still Africa is concerning of intercontinental conflicts of their borders and some sort of disintegrating of previously united nations.
However if the case is looked on healthy eyes and discussed meaningfully it is quite sure that this conflicts will end up in a healthy situation. But if the issue of interest seeking lies inside the African union still we will be in that chaos.
So as to resolve this, any territory before 1960 should be considered as it was ; not only this every nation who had been independent in 1960 and united illegally with any other nation in Africa should considered his decision of salvaging/reclaiming his lost sovereignty.
This case is especially affecting the peace oasis in the horn of Africa which is known as Somaliland which has been looking for its right of recognition since 25 years for the time it terminated/ceased its unity with the northern Somalia, and if this case is taken eye out many other complaints will arise from the horn where the government of Somalia failed to control its regions and divided in to semi-autonomous regions.
Written/studied by: Mohamed Abdilaahi Biihi